Telfor Journal Vol.11 No.1 (2019)

Content

Implementation of RSVP Protocol in Quagga Software

T. Komazec, A. Smiljanić, H. Redžović, and A. Radošević
Topic:
Telecommunications Networks
Abstract
Multimedia applications are already most popular on the Internet, and they are much better served with bandwidth and delay guarantees. Providing support for multimedia applications over the Internet is a difficult task because they require more bandwidth than standard applications. Aside from that, multimedia applications are real time so it is essential to guarantee certain capacity. RSVP protocol provides the basic quality of service on the Internet such as bandwidth reservations. This paper presents implementation of RSVP protocol that supports basic functionalities in Quagga Routing Suite software. Our implementation is meant to serve as a base for adding new functionalities. We have used modern concept of virtualization to provide environment for testing. In this paper, we present implementation and routing of Resv messages. Resv messages are routed based on IP lookup that uses the longest prefix matching. We validated our RSVP implementation through its testing in virtual environment. Guidelines for future improvements and upgrades to RSVP-TE protocol are recommended.
Keywords
RSVP protocol, RSVP – TE protocol, Quagga Routing Suite software.
Full Text
HyperLink Implementation of RSVP Protocol in Quagga Software
Page(s)
2-7
Doi
10.5937/telfor1901002K

Dynamic Optimization of Load-Balancing and Reconfiguration Overhead in SD-ISP Networks

S. Tomovic and I. Radusinovic
Topic:
Telecommunications Networks
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a new traffic engineering (TE) approach for software-defined Internet Service Provider (SD-ISP) networks that strives to maximize the network throughput and provide adequate QoS (Quality of Service) with a minimal reconfiguration cost. In contrast to the conventional TE approaches, which perform the network optimizations periodically and control the side effects of reconfigurations by carefully choosing the period length between the optimization cycles, we use a bi-objective optimization model that minimizes maximum link utilization and the reconfiguration overhead. A new heuristic algorithm has been proposed in order to generate the approximated Pareto frontier for the bi-objective optimization model, while the Lyapunov drift-plus-penalty algorithm is used to select the most appropriate solution from the approximated Pareto set. Our simulation study shows that the proposed approach adjusts to the ISP’s constraint on time-average reconfiguration rate by trading the throughput performance efficiently. Since the reconfiguration overhead is reduced, the network controller could be allowed to optimize resource allocation more frequently, in order to quickly and efficiently respond to the network changes. The paper analyses the impact of the reconfiguration rate constraint, average flow duration and the frequency of TE on the overall network performance.
Keywords
QoS, SDN, traffic engineering.
Full Text
HyperLink Dynamic Optimization of Load-Balancing and Reconfiguration Overhead in SD-ISP Networks
Page(s)
8-13
Doi
10.5937/telfor1901008T

Test bed for Network Protocols Optimization

A. Ceco and S. Mrdovic
Topic:
Telecommunications Networks
Abstract
This paper describes a test platform for verifying the functionality of network protocols as well as optimizing their parameters. The test bed is made by using combined OPNET simulator and MATLAB development environment. This test platform connects OPNET network protocols simulator with MATLAB development environment in the way that OPNET runs simulations of network traffic, with predetermined parameter values, while MATLAB executes the script with a mathematical algorithm, which optimizes parameters listed in OPNET simulator. Video traffic is generally transmitted via UDP protocol on the transport layer in TCI/IP model. Recently, alternatives for the transmission of video traffic have emerged with the use of the transport layer TCP protocol. As an exemplary use of the test platform, we performed the analysis of these two approaches, in addition to their comparison using simulations.
Keywords
Test platform, OPNET Modeler, MATLAB, network protocols, optimization, simulation, video streaming, TCP, UDP.
Full Text
HyperLink Test bed for Network Protocols Optimization
Page(s)
14-19
Doi
10.5937/telfor1901014C

On the Impact of NB-IoT on LTE MBB Downlink Performance

M. Davidović, I. Tomić, D. Drajić, and Z. Čiča
Topic:
Communications Systems
Abstract
Internet of Things (IoT) has become a part of everyday life as well as industry and society. One of the main concerns of a mobile operator before implementing IoT in the mobile network is how much the IoT traffic will affect the performance of MBB users. In this paper, we present the simulation study that analyzes the impact of NB-IoT implementation on LTE MBB performance, based on one real network case considering the current status as well as the projected future traffic growth in the network.
Keywords
IoT (Internet of Things), MBB (Mobile Broadband), MTC (Machine Type Communications), NB (Narrow Band), RBG (Resource Block Group).
Full Text
HyperLink On the Impact of NB-IoT on LTE MBB Downlink Performance
Page(s)
20-24
Doi
10.5937/telfor1901020D

The Impact of Successive B Frames on TV Signal using Different Compression Techniques and Video Resolution

V. D. Maksimović, J. M. Todorović, B. S. Jakšić, M. B. Petrović, and P. Lj. Spalević
Topic:
Communications Systems
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of successive B frames using compression techniques (H.264 and H.265) and resolution (4K, 2K, Full HD and SD) when changing their quality in a television system. The analysis was done for a case when the number of successive B frames in the Group of Pictures (GOP) was B = 0 and B = 4. The results obtained for analysis parameters: compression ratio, Peak Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR), bitrate, P frames and B frames are presented by tables and graphics, based on which conclusions were made.
Keywords
compression, H.264, H.265, I frames, P frames, B frames, GOP.
Full Text
HyperLink The Impact of Successive B Frames on TV Signal using Different Compression Techniques and Video Resolution
Page(s)
25-29
Doi
10.5937/telfor1901025M

Radiography Calibration Marker Detection using Hough Transformation

L. D. Novović, V. S. Ostojić, Đ. S. Starčević, and V. S. Petrović
Topic:
Signal Processing
Abstract
In this paper we analyse the possibility of simple detection of circular radiography markers. To detect the marker, we utilised the Hough transform. Two approaches were analysed: with detecting image edges and without image edge detection where pixel gradient was used in the Hough voting process, i.e. to increase the accumulator values. Approaches were evaluated on 13 clinical radiography images. It was shown that the approach that detects image edges spatially matches the reference circles only 0.22 % less than manual annotation values, whereas the approach that uses just the gradient magnitudes spatially matches the reference circles 3.2 % less than manual annotations.
Keywords
digital radiography, image delineation, magnification detection, radiography marker.
Full Text
HyperLink Radiography Calibration Marker Detection using Hough Transformation
Page(s)
30-34
Doi
10.5937/telfor1901030N

Analysis of Noise in Complex-Valued Binary and Bipolar Sigmoid Compressive Sensing

I. Stanković, M. Brajović, M. Daković, and L. Stanković
Topic:
Signal Processing
Abstract
Binary compressive sensing (CS) is a relatively new idea in the theory of sparse signal reconstruction. Under this framework, the signal is reconstructed based on the sign of the available measurements. This paper analyzes basic one-bit CS concepts for the case of complex valued random Gaussian measurement matrices. The reconstruction is compared with the B-bit quantized measurements. The concept of binary CS-based reconstruction is generalized by applying a sigmoid function to the measurements. Noise influence is also considered. The reconstruction is performed using a simple iterative thresholding algorithm.
Keywords
compressive sensing, complex, binary, bipolar, sigmoid, reconstruction, sparse signal processing.
Full Text
HyperLink Analysis of Noise in Complex-Valued Binary and Bipolar Sigmoid Compressive Sensing
Page(s)
35-40
Doi
10.5937/telfor1901035S

FIR Filter Implementation for High-Performance Application in a High-End FPGA

S. Pijetlović, M. Subotić, V. Marinković, and N. Pjevalica
Topic:
Signal Processing
Abstract
In this paper a high-performance application which uses multiple 48k tap FIR filters is presented. Due to its size, complexity and restrictions such as real-time, small latency and large memory bandwidth, the filter was implemented in UltraScale+, a high-end FPGA from Xilinx. The system was verified using a gold reference model written in C (high-level algorithm verification) and an analytical model calculated manually. The system was also tested using a development board and SystemVerilog (for register-transfer level and timing verification). The obtained results show a perfect match between the reference models and the actual output. The main novelty of the paper is the implementation of such an immense real-time signal processing system based on FIR filters consisting of over a million taps all together in a single design spread out across a chip containing three dies. Details about the resources allocated within the FPGA are also given in a table in the results chapter.
Keywords
FIR filter, FPGA, real-time.
Full Text
HyperLink FIR Filter Implementation for High-Performance Application in a High-End FPGA
Page(s)
41-45
Doi
10.5937/telfor1901041P

Influence of Wire-Based Impedance-Matching on Helical Antenna Radiation and Limitations of Equivalent Model

S. V. Savić, M. M. Ilić, and A. R. Djordjević
Topic:
Applied Electromagnetics
Abstract
We investigate the influence of a wire-based impedance-matching network for an axial-mode helical antenna on the radiation pattern. This network, proposed in our previous work, comprises a single wire attached to the helix. We show that the matching wire, mounted on a tubular dielectric support and attached to the helix close to the reflector, does not degrade the antenna radiation pattern. We also investigate limitations of the equivalent thin-wire model proposed in our previous work.
Keywords
Helical antenna, impedance-matching, radiation pattern, thin-wire model.
Full Text
HyperLink Influence of Wire-Based Impedance-Matching on Helical Antenna Radiation and Limitations of Equivalent Model
Page(s)
46-51
Doi
10.5937/telfor1901046S

Digital Holography Data Compression

R. Corda
Topic:
Multimedia
Abstract
Digital holography processing is a research topic related to the development of novel visual immersive applications. The huge amount of information conveyed by a digital hologram and the different properties of holographic data with respect to conventional photographic data require a comprehension of the performances and limitations of current image and video standard techniques. This paper proposes an architecture for objective evaluation of the performances of the state-of-the-art compression techniques applied to digital holographic data.
Keywords
computer generated holography, compression, digital holography, JPEG 2000, HEVC.
Full Text
HyperLink Digital Holography Data Compression
Page(s)
52-57
Doi
10.5937/telfor1901052C

Analysis and Evaluation of Three Methods for Tag Identification in OSK RFID Protocol

V. Tomašević and M. Tomašević
Topic:
Software Tools and Applications
Abstract
Feasibility for improving the efficiency of the tag identification phase in OSK (Ohkubo, Suzuki i Kinoshita) RFID protocol is analyzed in this paper. First, the basic identification technique is presented in general. Then, a procedure for speeding up the identification by employment of TMTO (Time Memory Trade Off) approach is explained. Balancing between memory and time requirements is achieved with the chaining technique and introduction of an off-line, preparatory phase. As an additional effort, a second TMTO-based level is proposed. It relies on a special look-up table which consists of the equidistant states generated during preparatory phase. The complexity of the proposed technique is discussed along with some numerical evaluation results obtained through experiments.
Keywords
OSK protocol, TMTO method, tag identification, state look-up table, chaining.
Full Text
HyperLink Analysis and Evaluation of Three Methods for Tag Identification in OSK RFID Protocol
Page(s)
58-63
Doi
10.5937/telfor1901058T

A Solution of Concurrent Queue on Local and Distributed Python STM

M. Popovic, B. Kordic, M. Popovic, and I. Basicevic
Topic:
Software Tools and Applications
Abstract
This paper was motivated by the two open research challenges in the area of STMs. The first challenge is the development of STM based concurrent queues, whereas the second, maybe even greater, challenge is the development of distributed STMs. Python is assumed as a target language. In this paper, four main contributions are made. First, the concurrent queue data structure on the local Python STM is developed. Second, a distributed STM in Python, called Distributed Python STM, is developed. Third, the developed concurrent queue is ported on the Distributed Python STM. Fourth, the developed concurrent queue is verified using unit and system testing. The developed concurrent queue successfully passed all of the unit and the system tests on both local Python STM and Distributed Python STM.
Keywords
multicore systems; parallel programming; Python; transactional memories; distributed transactional memories; concurrent data structures.
Full Text
HyperLink A Solution of Concurrent Queue on Local and Distributed Python STM
Page(s)
64-69
Doi
10.5937/telfor1901064P

Real-time Face Tracking in Video Content using Viola-Jones Algorithm

D. Đorić, S. Crnobrnja, M. Punt, and M. Davidović
Topic:
Software Tools and Applications
Abstract
In this paper an implementation of an application for detecting and tracking faces in real-time using the Viola-Jones algorithm and OpenCV library has been presented. Also, using the developed application it is possible to recover from failure during face tracking. Video content is obtained from a file or webcam.
Keywords
OpenCV, Viola-Jones, Haar features, Object tracking, Computer Vision.
Full Text
HyperLink Real-time Face Tracking in Video Content using Viola-Jones Algorithm
Page(s)
70-75
Doi
10.5937/telfor1901070D