Telfor Journal Vol.12 No.1 (2020)

Content

An Efficient Energy Aware Link Stable Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile ad hoc Networks in Urban Areas

S. E. Benatia, O. Smail, B. Meftah, M. Rebbah, and B. Cousin
Topic:
Telecommunications Networks
Abstract
Ad Hoc wireless mobile networks are characterized by a lack of central administration and the fact that any element of the network, being very mobile, is susceptible to disappear. In an Ad Hoc network, all the elements must cooperate in order to establish a temporary network to communicate. This communication is affected by the links stability mainly in a restricted environment such as a city and the depletion of the batteries energy of the nodes. These factors degrade the ad hoc networks performance. We propose in this paper a stable routing protocol with weak energy consumption for urban areas in order to improve these performances. The proposed solution is a multipath protocol named ESMRua (Efficient energy aware and Link Stable Multipath Routing Protocol in urban areas). ESMRua uses a path selection scheme based on energy constraint, signal quality and link stability. For the link stability, three calculation variants are used. ESMRua will be designed for realistic mobility, contrary to the main existing protocols which are designed to the random mobility models; these models have unrealistic behaviors such as a brusque acceleration and a sudden stop. Simulation results show that our multipath protocol enhances the performance of the ad hoc networks, mainly in terms of routing overhead, energy consumption and network reliability.
Keywords
Mobile ad hoc network, Multipath routing, Mobility model for urban areas, Energy efficiency, Link stability and quality, Network reliability.
Full Text
HyperLink An Efficient Energy Aware Link Stable Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile ad hoc Networks in Urban Areas
Page(s)
2-7
Doi
10.5937/telfor2001002E

Statistical Analysis of CQI Reporting and MIMO Utilization for Downlink Scheduling in Live LTE Mobile Network

I. A. Tomić, Đ. Lukić, M. Davidović, D. D. Drajić, and P. Ivaniš
Topic:
Communications Systems
Abstract
This paper considers a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) downlink scheduling procedure in Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular networks. In particular, the relationship between Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) and MIMO utilization in LTE Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) systems was examined using the statistical analysis. Data was collected from a mature mobile network deployed in typical frequency bands for LTE FDD used in Europe – Band 3, Band 7 and Band 20. Obtained numerical results showed a significant correlation between reported CQI value and MIMO utilization.
Keywords
CQI (Channel Quality Indicator), Downlink Scheduling, LTE (Long Term Evolution), MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output).
Full Text
HyperLink Statistical Analysis of CQI Reporting and MIMO Utilization for Downlink Scheduling in Live LTE Mobile Network
Page(s)
8-12
Doi
10.5937/telfor2001008T

QoS Measurement of VoIP Codec Usage on Limited Bandwidth Network over UDP-based VPN

B. S. Panca
Topic:
Communications Systems
Abstract
The usage of internet protocol for voice communication is widely used and more efficient rather than an analog signal. However, there is no security guaranteed on IP-based voice communication. The voice payload can be easily tapped or even manipulated. In the case of improving the security aspect, communication quality should be also considered. VoIP requires sufficient bandwidth to get proper communication quality. The ITU-T released a standard unit of communication quality, known as Mean Opinion Score (MOS) which is made from the subjective judgments of some individuals. However, MOS method takes time and is expensive. In this research, we measure VoIP communication which is secured by using VPN and build a tool for analyzing the voice packet between communication peers. The tool has capabilities to measure delay, jitter, and packet loss. Since VoIP has a QoS standard by ITU-T, the usage of VPN for security purpose needs to be considered. The sound quality might be decreased due to the addition of header for tunneling method, as well as the additional delay when the encryption processing is carried out. We used 3 types of codec: a-Law, GSM, and iLBC which will be passed on 4 types of bandwidth (256, 128, 64, 32 kbps) through the UDP-based VPN that use 3 types of encryption method (3-DES, Blowfish, AES).
Keywords
qos, voip, codec, bandwidth, vpn, udp, encryption.
Full Text
HyperLink QoS Measurement of VoIP Codec Usage on Limited Bandwidth Network over UDP-based VPN
Page(s)
13-17
Doi
10.5937/telfor2001013S

Experimental Testing on Phantom Image for Improved MRI Compressed Sensing

A. Kamilovski
Topic:
Signal Processing
Abstract
This paper presents a possible way for improving the techniques of compressed sensing and parallel imaging techniques for brain MRI. Experimental tests have been performed over a phantom test image. An exclusive elliptical sampling mask has been generated, which in combination with double-density wavelet transforms offers improvement over the standard approach. Additional tests undertaken as part of this research propose the usage of non-linear reconstruction method, generated elliptical sampling mask and double-density wavelet transform for application of compressed sensing to brain MRI. An assessment of the results for diagnostic usage has been done by a specialist of radiology.
Keywords
Brain MRI, phantom test image, compressed sensing, parallel imaging, sampling patterns, wavelet transform, double-density wavelets, POCS, zero-filled, GRAPPA.
Full Text
HyperLink Experimental Testing on Phantom Image for Improved MRI Compressed Sensing
Page(s)
18-21
Doi
10.5937/telfor2001018K

DeepFake Video Production and SIFT-based Analysis

M. Đorđević, M. Milivojević, and A. Gavrovska
Topic:
Multimedia
Abstract
Nowadays advantages in face-based modification using DeepFake algorithms made it possible to replace a face of one person with a face of another person. Thus, it is possible to make not only copy-move modifications, but to implement artificial intelligence and deep learning for replacing face movements from one person to another. Still images can be converted into video sequences. Consequently, the contemporaries, historical figures or even animated characters can be lively presented. Deepfakes are becoming more and more successful and it is difficult to detect them in some cases. In this paper we explain the video sequences we produced (e.g. using X2Face method, and First Order Motion Model for Image Animation) and perform deepfake video analysis using SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) based approach. The experiments show the simplicity in video forgery production, as well as the possible role of SIFT keypoints detection in differentiation between the deeply forged and original video content.
Keywords
SIFT, video production, forgery, DeepFake, deep learning, computer vision.
Full Text
HyperLink DeepFake Video Production and SIFT-based Analysis
Page(s)
22-27
Doi
10.5937/telfor2001022Q

Ternary Coded Melody as Blind Audio Watermark

R. Kh. Latypov and E. L. Stolov
Topic:
Multimedia
Abstract
In this paper, we developed a new technique for blind embedding of ternary coded watermarks into audio files. Usage of ternary coding increases payload of the method that can be considered as an advantage against binary-coded watermarks. A well-known melody is presented as a sequence of ternary digits (trits) and is used as a watermark. This sequence is embedded into the time domain of a host audio file through amplitude modulation and B-splines. There is a version of that procedure where the clean copy of the container is necessary for extraction watermark [1]. In our approach, we exclude that container and convert the method into a blind one. The strong correlation between neighbor samples in the container is used to this end. A procedure based on neuron net is suggested for enhancement perception of ternary coded music. In this case, we exploit the correlation between samples in the watermark melody. It is supposed that a person checks the mark's existence, and he/she can recognize the melody even after significant distortions. The resistance of the technique to the most successful attacks is investigated.
Keywords
audio watermarks, B-spline, blind embedding, neural net, ternary coded melody.
Full Text
HyperLink Ternary Coded Melody as Blind Audio Watermark
Page(s)
28-33
Doi
10.5937/telfor2001028L

A New Technique for Understanding Large-Scale Software Systems

T. Al-Rousan and H. Abualese
Topic:
Software Systems
Abstract
Comprehending a huge execution trace is not a straightforward task due to the size of data to be processed. Detecting and removing utilities are useful to facilitate the understanding of software and decrease the complexity and size of the execution trace. The goal of this study is to develop a novel technique to minimize the complexity and the size of traces by detecting and removing utilities from the execution trace of object-oriented software. Two novel utility detection class metrics were suggested to decide the degree that a specific class can be counted as a utility class. Dynamic coupling analysis forms the basis for the proposed technique to address object-oriented features. The technique presented in this study has been tested by two case studies to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. The results from the case studies show the usefulness and effectiveness of our technique.
Keywords
Utility Classes, Software Comprehension, Dynamic Coupling Analysis, Object-Oriented Software.
Full Text
HyperLink A New Technique for Understanding Large-Scale Software Systems
Page(s)
34-39
Doi
10.5937/telfor2001034A

Development of ADAS perception applications in ROS and “Software-In-the-Loop” validation with CARLA simulator

S. Stević, M. Krunić, M. Dragojević, and N. Kaprocki
Topic:
Software Systems
Abstract
Higher levels of autonomous driving are bringing sophisticated requirements and unpredicted challenges. In order to solve these problems, the set of functionalities in modern vehicles is growing in terms of algorithmic complexity and required hardware. The risk of testing implemented solutions in real world is high, expensive and time consuming. This is the reason for virtual automotive simulation tools for testing are heavily acclaimed. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) use these tools to create closed sense, compute, act loop to have realistic testing scenarios. Production software is tested against simulated sensing data. Based on these inputs a set of actions is produced and simulated which generates consequences that are evaluated. This creates a possibility for OEMs to minimize design errors and optimize costs of the vehicle production before any physical prototypes are produced. This paper presents the development of simple C++/Python perception applications that can be used in driver assistance functionalities. Using ROS as a prototyping platform these applications are validated and tested with “Software-In-the-Loop” (SIL) method. CARLA simulator is used as a generator for input data and output commands of the autonomous platform are executed as simulated actions within simulator. Validation is done by connecting Autoware autonomous platform with CARLA simulator in order to test against various scenes in which applications are applicable. Vision based lane detection, which is one of the prototypes, is also tested in a real world scenario to demonstrate the applicability of algorithms developed with simulators to real-time processing.
Keywords
Autonomous driving, perception, ROS, CARLA, AUTOWARE, SIL, ADAS, C++, Python.
Full Text
HyperLink Development of ADAS perception applications in ROS and “Software-In-the-Loop” validation with CARLA simulator
Page(s)
40-45
Doi
10.5937/telfor2001040S

Comparing Assembler Procedures by Analyzing Sequences of Opcodes

N. Pejić, M. Cvetanović, and Z. Radivojević
Topic:
Software Systems
Abstract
Static analysis of executables for the purpose of comparing them can be made more difficult if the binaries are created using different compilers. In order to compensate for the noise introduced by the compilers, the arguments of the instructions are usually discarded as having a low signal-to-noise ratio. As compiler can often apply instruction reordering, some approaches only compare statistical information about the instructions, or compare their subsequences in order to measure their similarity. This paper presents an approach for estimating the similarity of procedures given in assembler form (disassembled binaries) by analyzing their sequences of opcodes. The approach first encodes the opcodes into integer values by mapping opcodes that represent similar actions into the same values, and then calculates a relative Levenshtein distance between the two sequences of integers. The proposed approach is evaluated and compared with some existing approaches, where it showed to have on average around 6% higher recall than the second-best approach.
Keywords
assembler code analysis, sequence of instructions, software clone detection.
Full Text
HyperLink Comparing Assembler Procedures by Analyzing Sequences of Opcodes
Page(s)
46-49
Doi
10.5937/telfor2001046P

A new fully Homomorphic Cryptosystem based on a Super-increasing Sequence

M. A. Mohammed and F. S. Abed
Topic:
Security Modelling
Abstract
Cloud computing is a powerful computing paradigm that provides a variety of computing services to its users. An example is storage, which allows individuals and enterprises to outsource their files to remote storage. However, saving private information onto third-party storage increases the security issues of data and privacy protection concerns. For this reason, cloud service providers (CSPs) are required to save an encrypted version of user data. In this paper, a novel encryption technique based on the use of Fully Homomorphic Encryption is presented. The technique uses a super-increasing sequence to derive the key and works on encrypted data with no need for decryption; this yields the same results as performing it on plaintext data. In the proposed technique, the characters are converted to their corresponding ASCII code values, which differs from the binary values produced by other existing techniques.
Keywords
Cryptography, Cloud Computing Security, Fully Homomorphic Encryption, Information Security, Privacy Protection.
Full Text
HyperLink A new fully Homomorphic Cryptosystem based on a Super-increasing Sequence
Page(s)
50-55
Doi
10.5937/telfor2001050A

Methods, Methodologies, and Tools for Threat Modeling with Case Study

A. Hajrić, T. Smaka, S. Baraković, and J. Baraković Husić
Topic:
Security Modelling
Abstract
The security of each system is essential for its use. In order to make this process as successful as possible, it is advisable to develop a threat model for the system under consideration at the design stage. The purpose of the threat model is to enable the identification of security threats, by whose further analysis we can conclude which are the greatest vulnerabilities of the system and which pose the greatest risk. There exist many different approaches to threat modeling in terms of methods, methodologies, and tools. In this paper, we give an overview of those approaches and apply one of them, i.e., the most represented and mature to a specific system. A STRIDE-based methodology, software-centric method, and Microsoft Threat Modeling Tool (MTMT) mixture has been used to threat model the Web of Things (WoT)-based temperature management system which is in the design phase.
Keywords
attack, countermeasures, ICT, methodologies, modeling, security, threat, tools, WoT.
Full Text
HyperLink Methods, Methodologies, and Tools for Threat Modeling with Case Study
Page(s)
56-61
Doi
10.5937/telfor2001056H

Improvement of Academic Services using Mobile Technology based on Single Page Application

H. Asrohah, M. K. Milad, A. T. Wibowo, and E. I. Rhofita
Topic:
Mobile and Web Applications
Abstract
This research discussed the use of SPA-based mobile applications for academic activities at universities. This technology works using asynchronous JavaScript, which can be run by mobile devices and is not limited by the operating system used by mobile phones such as Android, iOS, and others. This way could be reduced the workload of the server because the data sent by a server is not significant compared with a web-based application.
Keywords
Academic Services, Mobile application, SPA Technology.
Full Text
HyperLink Improvement of Academic Services using Mobile Technology based on Single Page Application
Page(s)
62-66
Doi
10.5937/telfor2001062A

An Ontology-based Framework for Automated Code Generation of web AR Applications

L. Djordjevic, N. Petrovic, and M. Tosic
Topic:
Mobile and Web Applications
Abstract
In this paper, we propose an ontology-based framework for automated web AR application code generation leveraging semantic descriptions of application structure and behavior in synergy with domain knowledge and annotations of builidng information model (BIM). Three case studies are presented: smart home energy consumption monitoring application, robotics testbed companion and virtual music mixing interface. The presented approach significantly reduces the time needed for web AR application development.
Keywords
augmented reality, building information modeling, ontology, semantics.
Full Text
HyperLink An Ontology-based Framework for Automated Code Generation of web AR Applications
Page(s)
67-72
Doi
10.5937/telfor2001067Q

ERRATA

Topic:
ERRATA
Abstract
Errata to the December 2019 issue of the Telfor Journal.
Keywords
Telfor Journal
Full Text
HyperLink ERRATA
Page(s)
73-73
Doi
10.5937/telfor2001073U